Library of risk of bias tools

Recommended by LATITUDES QUADAS-2

Study design(s) targeted by the tool Diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studiesdiagnostic-test-accuracy-dta-studies
Additional details on designs NA
Tool area Health
Link to the tool Get the QUADAS-2 tool (PDF)


Primary publication Whiting PF, Rutjes AW, Westwood ME, Mallet S, Deeks JJ, Reitsma JB, Leeflang MM, Sterne JA, Bossut PM, QUADAS-2 Group*. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Annals of internal medicine. 2011 Oct 18;155(8):529-36.
DOI 10.7326/0003-4819-155-8-201110180-00009
Guidance document Get the QUADAS-2 guidance (PDF)

Cochrane training on QUADAS-2

Language English

Italian & Japanese

Record last updated 19/06/2022

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Wade R, Corbett M, Eastwood A. Quality assessment of comparative diagnostic accuracy studies: our experience using a modified version of the QUADAS‐2 tool. Research synthesis methods. 2013 Sep;4(3):280-6.

Other publications

None known – please contact us if you are aware of any publications that should be listed here.

Key Criteria

Focuses on risk of bias, or makes a distinction between items that assess risk of bias and other aspects of study quality Yes
Offers a method to reach either a domain specific or overall assessment of risk of bias Yes
Tool development involving a range of stakeholders from different disciplines (e.g. methodologists, statisticians, clinicians) Yes
Avoids recommending use of summary numerical quality scores Yes